SS Atlantus: New Jersey’s Concrete Shipwreck

Wreck of the concrete ship SS Atlantus off Cape May, New Jersey(Image: © Luigi Novi / Wikimedia Commons. Wreck of the concrete ship SS Atlantus)

Aground off the coast of Cape May, New Jersey, a hulking shipwreck serves as a lasting reminder of perhaps one of the most unusual wartime construction projects the US ever undertook: the concrete ship. The idea of a concrete ship may come as a surprise to many. But after World War One, concrete was considered an appropriate low cost material for constructing supply ships and troop transports.

(Image: via Wikimedia)

According to Weird NJ, the SS Atlantus and her concrete sister ships were the brainchild of one Norseman N.K. Fougner. Fougner was asked to develop alternate shipbuilding methods when traditional materials, such as steel, became difficult to come by due to World War One.

(Image: Boston Public Library)

The Atlantus was the first of his experimental concrete ships, launched in 1918. Twelve were built altogether. But perhaps not surprisingly, they were soon deemed to be both impractical and slow. Nicknamed “floating tombstones”, the ships more properly dubbed the “Concrete Fleet” were quickly decommissioned.

(Image: TypoBoy)

In 1926, SS Atlantus was given a brief reprieve when a businessman rescued her from her Virginia ship graveyard and attempted to put her back into service (sort of) as a dock for ferries that would operate between Cape May and Lewes, Delaware. But the plan was short-lived. On June 8th that year, she was jarred loose in a storm and sank off Sunset Bay, New Jersey.

(Image: © Luigi Novi / Wikimedia Commons)

Over the decades, chunks of the abandoned ship’s superstructure have broken away and sunk beneath the waves. However, the ruined shipwreck – battered by the elements – is still in evidence. One of her more ironic uses over the years was to serve as a de facto billboard for boat insurance.

(Image: Neil DeMaster)

The wreck of SS Atlantus remains a popular sight for tourists today, though her condition has noticeably deteriorated as the years have passed her by. An unmistakable spectacle from the nearby beach, there’s no telling how much longer this offbeat monument to one of America’s strangest shipbuilding projects is set to last.

Related: Mallows Bay: The “Ghost Fleet” of the Chesapeake

The post SS Atlantus: New Jersey’s Concrete Shipwreck appeared first on Urban Ghosts Media.

SS Atlantus: New Jersey’s Concrete Shipwreck

Wreck of the concrete ship SS Atlantus off Cape May, New Jersey(Image: © Luigi Novi / Wikimedia Commons. Wreck of the concrete ship SS Atlantus)

Aground off the coast of Cape May, New Jersey, a hulking shipwreck serves as a lasting reminder of perhaps one of the most unusual wartime construction projects the US ever undertook: the concrete ship. The idea of a concrete ship may come as a surprise to many. But after World War One, concrete was considered an appropriate low cost material for constructing supply ships and troop transports.

(Image: via Wikimedia)

According to Weird NJ, the SS Atlantus and her concrete sister ships were the brainchild of one Norseman N.K. Fougner. Fougner was asked to develop alternate shipbuilding methods when traditional materials, such as steel, became difficult to come by due to World War One.

(Image: Boston Public Library)

The Atlantus was the first of his experimental concrete ships, launched in 1918. Twelve were built altogether. But perhaps not surprisingly, they were soon deemed to be both impractical and slow. Nicknamed “floating tombstones”, the ships more properly dubbed the “Concrete Fleet” were quickly decommissioned.

(Image: TypoBoy)

In 1926, SS Atlantus was given a brief reprieve when a businessman rescued her from her Virginia ship graveyard and attempted to put her back into service (sort of) as a dock for ferries that would operate between Cape May and Lewes, Delaware. But the plan was short-lived. On June 8th that year, she was jarred loose in a storm and sank off Sunset Bay, New Jersey.

(Image: © Luigi Novi / Wikimedia Commons)

Over the decades, chunks of the abandoned ship’s superstructure have broken away and sunk beneath the waves. However, the ruined shipwreck – battered by the elements – is still in evidence. One of her more ironic uses over the years was to serve as a de facto billboard for boat insurance.

(Image: Neil DeMaster)

The wreck of SS Atlantus remains a popular sight for tourists today, though her condition has noticeably deteriorated as the years have passed her by. An unmistakable spectacle from the nearby beach, there’s no telling how much longer this offbeat monument to one of America’s strangest shipbuilding projects is set to last.

Related: Mallows Bay: The “Ghost Fleet” of the Chesapeake

The post SS Atlantus: New Jersey’s Concrete Shipwreck appeared first on Urban Ghosts Media.

The Abandoned Haludovo Palace Hotel, Croatia

The abandoned Haludovo Palace Hotel in Croatia(Image: Tor Lindstrand. Abandoned ruins of the Haludovo Palace Hotel in Croatia) 

Abandoned casinos will always have their tales to tell, and Croatia’s crumbling Haludovo Palace Hotel doesn’t disappoint, right from its inception. According to Sometimes Interesting, the mastermind behind the project was American businessman Bob Guccione. While that name might not be familiar, the magazine that Guccione built his fortune with certainly is: Penthouse.

(Image: Tor Lindstrand)

At a time when Guccione was looking for investment opportunities, the perfect one presented itself in one of the more unlikely places. Yugoslavia, despite being a communist country, was open to foreign investment and the transfer of money across state boundaries. As a result, Bob Guccione decided to invest some $45 million into the luxury resort in Rijeka, believing that it would attract like-minded businessmen.

The crumbling ruins of the one-time Penthouse Adriatic Club at the Haludovo Palace Hotel(Image: Thorsten Schroeteler)

When the Penthouse Adriatic Club at the Haludovo Palace Hotel first opened its doors in 1972, it offered the sort of luxury that most people would only find on television. Guests feasted on lobster and caviar while relaxing among the fountains, hanging gardens, and alongside the pools, one of which was allegedly filled with champagne.

(Images: Tor Lindstrand)

Guccione reportedly brought his own ‘Penthouse Pets’ to the opulent resort hotel and casino to serve as hostesses, and the Penthouse Adriatic Club at the Haludovo Palace Hotel made headlines around the world. In a strange twist, it would be cultural differences that would strike the first blows against the lavish Haludovo Palace Hotel.

(Images: Tor Lindstrand)

While Guccione advertised his Pets as “new soldiers of the Cold War”, Western tourists didn’t take to the resort as expected, and locals were forbidden from gambling. Furthermore, Yugoslavia’s socialist self-management ethos gave employees powers to make decisions through assemblies.

(Images: Tor Lindstrand)

By 1973, new legislation cracked down on casinos owned by foreign parties, and Guccione had himself been pushed out by 1974. Ownership was reportedly transferred to a worker-run company who agreed to pay Bob Guccione as an employee. The ‘Penthouse’ tag was dropped from its name, which simply became the Haludovo Palace Hotel. Extravagance ended, somewhat, but the resort was still known to be an upscale destination.

(Images: Tor Lindstrand)

By the 1980s, conflict in Yugoslavia was taking its toll not just on the country, but on the Haludovo Palace Hotel. Last turning a profit in 1990, the ailing resort was used briefly as a refugee shelter in the early part of the decade. When those refugees were forced off the property, they reportedly took everything that they could carry with them.

(Image: Tor Lindstrand)

Balkanist reported on what later happened to the property. According to the website, the last guests came and went around 2002. Since that time, the abandoned Penthouse Adriatic Club at the Haludovo Palace Hotel, the very embodiment of ostentatious wealth and luxury, has been left to the mercy of vandals and the elements.

(Images: (1, 2) Usien)

Related: 10 Abandoned Hotels Across Eastern Europe Asia, Africa & Oceania

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Hunters Point: Abandoned San Francisco Naval Shipyard Building

An abandoned building in the former San Francisco Naval Shipyard at Hunters Point.(Image: Dllu. Abandoned building at former San Francisco Naval Shipyard)

The San Francisco Naval Shipyard, which occupied 638 acres of waterfront at Hunters Point in the southeast of the city, was built in 1870 and closed permanently in 1994. Since that time large swaths of the former US Navy facility have been decontaminated as part of a superfund cleanup operation and sold to the private sector. Some of these land parcels are now under redevelopment as condominiums. But in other corners of the historic shipyard, which was purchased by the Navy in 1940, just one year before the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, original buildings linger on in varying states of disrepair and decay. The derelict leviathan of a structure pictured above (in October 2016) echoes the history of this stretch of the Hunters Point waterfront and its long association with the US military’s San Francisco Naval Shipyard.

Dry dock 4 at San Francisco Naval Shipyard(Image: Sanfranman59. Dry dock 4 at San Francisco Naval Shipyard, 2012 )

Related: Map Reveals Location of San Francisco’s Buried Ships

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McDonnell F4H-1F 143388, the Oldest Surviving F-4A Phantom, Stored at Quantico, VA

F4H-1F BuNo. 143388, the oldest surviving Phantom F-4A in storage at MCAF Quantico in Virginia, USA.(Image: Mark Carlisle. F4H-1F BuNo. 143388, the oldest surviving Phantom F-4A)

I’ve often wondered what became of many of the earliest McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom IIs, the A models, of which just 45 airframes were built and three are on public display. Originally designated F4H-1F, these early F-4A jets followed on from two older XF4H-1 prototypes built for the US Navy and first flown in 1958. The F-4A designation was first applied in 1962, and subsequent Phantom models followed the same system, with the F-4D and E models being the most numerous. The Navy’s small F-4A fleet were mostly used for evaluating and training (a small number were converted specifically for this latter role and designated TF-4A) and it wasn’t until production of the F-4B model for the Navy and US Marine Corps that the first “definitive” Phantom had arrived. Only a small number of F-4As have survived the decades, and one of them – the oldest survivor of all (BuNo. 143388) – sits in a storage hangar at Marine Corps Air Facility Quantico pending restoration for eventual display at the National Museum of the Marine Corps.

Airframe 143388, the third Phantom built, looks like a dusty, faded ghost of a warplane, but will make for a superb museum exhibit once she’s been cleaned up and restored to her former glory. Alongside her in the storage facility are a number of other retired airframes, including an early model McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A Hornet.

A McDonnell F4H-1F Phantom II on USS Independence in 1960.(Image: USN. An F4H-1F (F-4A) onboard USS Independence in 1960)

What would become the F4H-1F (F-4A) was first conceived in 1952 as a twin-seat all weather carrier-based fighter aircraft for the US Navy, and went on the become one of the most iconic military aircraft of all time. An impressive 5,195 Phantoms were built in total, including a healthy series of export variants that in some cases remain in service to this day.

One notable, and tragic, record attempt involving the McDonnell F-4A was known as Operation Sageburner and took place in August 1961. As the Smithsonian’s National Air and Space Museum writes:

With the final design set, the F4H-1, now called the Phantom II, was ordered into full production. Because of its exceptional performance the Bureau of Weapons (BUWEPS), successor to the BUAER, assigned several F4H-1s to attempt to set speed, altitude and time to climb records. For the most part, the high altitude record-breaking attempts were conducted in “Skyburner”, while the low altitude records were conducted in “Sageburner”. The attempts were spectacularly successful. “Skyburner” set records for speed and climb, including altitude, 98,557 ft., sustained altitude, 66,443 ft. and maximum speed over a closed 500-kilometer closed course, 1216.76-mph. Sageburner established the low altitude record.

There were two “Sageburners.” The first one crashed from a combination of factors. The principal causes were the excessive sensitivity of the F4H-1 pitch control and pitch damping system and pilot error. Cdr. J. L. Felsman was killed when he caused a Pilot Induced Oscillation (PIO) which, combined with high speed and extremely high aerodynamic pressure caused the airframe to distort to such a degree that it disintegrated. The engines, which had been at full power, broke loose and, maintaining the relative separation they had in the aircraft, continued down range for several miles, streaming smoke and fuel vapor before crashing.

Read Next: Abandoned F-14 Tomcats & F-4 Phantom Dumped in Woods (VIDEO)

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America’s Abandoned & Orphaned Oil Wells

Uncovering America's abandoned and orphaned oil wells(Image: USFWS. Uncovering America’s abandoned and orphaned oil wells)

The world has been addicted to oil for decades, and abandoned and orphaned oil wells are now a global issue. When The Surge examined this particular phenomenon in the United States alone, they found an alarming number of orphaned wells (these are oil and gas wells with no viable owner to manage them) and a varied set of state rules covering who must take responsibility for them.

Large-scale oil drilling has been going on since the 1850s. In theory, once an oil or gas well is redundant it should be sealed permanently. Typically, that means plugging wells with steel casing and filling them with concrete. But orphaned oil wells are those that have simply been abandoned, often by small-time chancers rather than responsible producers.

Abandoned gas wells and orphaned oil wells across the US(Image: USFWS)

As of 2016, The Surge estimated that there was something in the region of two million abandoned and orphaned oil wells in the United States alone. Business Insider, however, suggests the number might be as high as three million, posing a major problem for states as abandoned oil wells slowly poison our atmosphere and the landscape around them.

Scientists believe these defunct wells are a major source of greenhouse gas emissions. The odourless, invisible gas methane is one of the greatest problems in global warming. A 2014 study found that abandoned and orphaned oil wells might account for four to seven percent of man-made methane emissions in the state of Pennsylvania alone. Add to that the fact that no-one is entirely sure how many forgotten wells there are, and the problem mounts.

(Image: USFWS)

Both Business Insider and The Surge touch on the problems that arise with no federal regulation for the capping and sealing of abandoned oil and gas wells, as states are left to deal with the situation themselves. But even those wells that are plugged aren’t necessarily plugged correctly. One expert said that some owners had use tree trunks to cap wells during times – such as World War Two – when other materials were scarce.

Abandoned oil wells in America(Image: USFWS)

The cost of addressing this problem is significant. Plugging a single orphaned oil well – and rehabilitating the nearby land can cost up to (and more than) $100,000. And there’s still no telling how many abandoned oil wells lie hidden from view in woodland or even the basements of houses.

So if you’re driving across the American landscape and notice the silhouette of long defunct drilling equipment, spare a thought for the many other wells that have yet to be uncovered, and not just across the United States, but the wider world too.

(Image: USFWS)

Read Next: Defunct Delta Solar Project: Abandoned Solar Farm in the Utah Desert

The post America’s Abandoned & Orphaned Oil Wells appeared first on Urban Ghosts Media.

America’s Abandoned & Orphaned Oil Wells

Uncovering America's abandoned and orphaned oil wells(Image: USFWS. Uncovering America’s abandoned and orphaned oil wells)

The world has been addicted to oil for decades, and abandoned and orphaned oil wells are now a global issue. When The Surge examined this particular phenomenon in the United States alone, they found an alarming number of orphaned wells (these are oil and gas wells with no viable owner to manage them) and a varied set of state rules covering who must take responsibility for them.

Large-scale oil drilling has been going on since the 1850s. In theory, once an oil or gas well is redundant it should be sealed permanently. Typically, that means plugging wells with steel casing and filling them with concrete. But orphaned oil wells are those that have simply been abandoned, often by small-time chancers rather than responsible producers.

Abandoned gas wells and orphaned oil wells across the US(Image: USFWS)

As of 2016, The Surge estimated that there was something in the region of two million abandoned and orphaned oil wells in the United States alone. Business Insider, however, suggests the number might be as high as three million, posing a major problem for states as abandoned oil wells slowly poison our atmosphere and the landscape around them.

Scientists believe these defunct wells are a major source of greenhouse gas emissions. The odourless, invisible gas methane is one of the greatest problems in global warming. A 2014 study found that abandoned and orphaned oil wells might account for four to seven percent of man-made methane emissions in the state of Pennsylvania alone. Add to that the fact that no-one is entirely sure how many forgotten wells there are, and the problem mounts.

(Image: USFWS)

Both Business Insider and The Surge touch on the problems that arise with no federal regulation for the capping and sealing of abandoned oil and gas wells, as states are left to deal with the situation themselves. But even those wells that are plugged aren’t necessarily plugged correctly. One expert said that some owners had use tree trunks to cap wells during times – such as World War Two – when other materials were scarce.

Abandoned oil wells in America(Image: USFWS)

The cost of addressing this problem is significant. Plugging a single orphaned oil well – and rehabilitating the nearby land can cost up to (and more than) $100,000. And there’s still no telling how many abandoned oil wells lie hidden from view in woodland or even the basements of houses.

So if you’re driving across the American landscape and notice the silhouette of long defunct drilling equipment, spare a thought for the many other wells that have yet to be uncovered, and not just across the United States, but the wider world too.

(Image: USFWS)

Read Next: Defunct Delta Solar Project: Abandoned Solar Farm in the Utah Desert

The post America’s Abandoned & Orphaned Oil Wells appeared first on Urban Ghosts Media.

Glastenbury: Vermont Ghost Town in Eerie “Bennington Triangle”

The ghost town of Glastenbury, Vermont lies in the heart of the so-called Bennington Triangle(Image: Google Earth. Glastenbury, Vermont ghost town is in the so-called Bennington Triangle)

The forests of New England have an unmistakable beauty to them, but search for information on a place called Glastenbury, Vermont, and you’ll probably uncover a plethora of stories involving paranormal activity and UFOs. Some even say it’s the home of the Bennington Triangle, a hotbed of unexplained phenomena. That’s all well and good, but what about the real history to this breathtaking slice of paradise turned ghost town?

When Chad Abramovich from Obscure Vermont headed out to Glastenbury and its neighbouring Fayville, he found traces of the settlements that had once been there. There were overgrown orchards, cellar holes, and stone foundations marking the spots where homes once stood.

Glastenbury, VT south of Vermont Route 11.(Image: Schzmo. Glastenbury, VT south of Vermont Route 11)

According to Abramovich, Glastenbury, Vermont was founded in 1761, but it took decades for charcoal and lumber industries to grow large enough to support the community. It was something of a Wild West frontier town on the East Coast, but by the end of the 19th century the settlement had outgrown its industry and become a tourist destination.

Decades of felling trees had taken their toll, through, and the area around Glastenbury became prone to flooding and landslides. The allure of the location dwindled, and by the 1930s few people remained there. Those who did were all were members of the Mattison family, and they occupied every public office in the town.

The woodland location of Glastenbury, Vermont ghost town(Image: Google Earth. The woodland location of Glastenbury, Vermont)

Though the ghost town of Glastenbury, Vermont lies in an area known to some as the “Bennington Triangle”, the term wasn’t actually coined until 1992 (by author Joseph Citro), when a bizarre folklore began to swirl around the area. Supposedly, there’s a stone in the area that will swallow you if you step on it. Other tales tell of disorienting winds that cause people to lose their way in the woods. What’s more, a number of mysterious stone cairns amid the landscape around Glastenbury have only added fuel to the conspiracy fire.

There are older tales, too. In the 1860s, stories began circulating of a wild man who lived in the woods and occasionally tormented the more respectable folk. Several murders have occurred over the years – perhaps not too surprising for a centuries-old settlement with a dubious reputation. More bizarre, however, are reported sightings of an 8-foot-tall Bigfoot-like creature known to locals as the Bennington Monster (an outgrowth of the wild man of Glastenbury folklore, perhaps?).

The Bennington Monster has been blamed for the series of disappearances recorded across the area, leading some to believe that it was once the hunting ground of something far more sinister: a genuine serial killer. Whatever your personal thoughts on the Bennington Triangle may be, the remote landscape around Glastenbury ghost town is an eerie place that will live on in folklore for many years to come.

Related: Ghost Towns: 20 Haunting Abandoned Villages of the World

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Glastenbury: Vermont Ghost Town in Eerie “Bennington Triangle”

The ghost town of Glastenbury, Vermont lies in the heart of the so-called Bennington Triangle(Image: Google Earth. Glastenbury, Vermont ghost town is in the so-called Bennington Triangle)

The forests of New England have an unmistakable beauty to them, but search for information on a place called Glastenbury, Vermont, and you’ll probably uncover a plethora of stories involving paranormal activity and UFOs. Some even say it’s the home of the Bennington Triangle, a hotbed of unexplained phenomena. That’s all well and good, but what about the real history to this breathtaking slice of paradise turned ghost town?

When Chad Abramovich from Obscure Vermont headed out to Glastenbury and its neighbouring Fayville, he found traces of the settlements that had once been there. There were overgrown orchards, cellar holes, and stone foundations marking the spots where homes once stood.

Glastenbury, VT south of Vermont Route 11.(Image: Schzmo. Glastenbury, VT south of Vermont Route 11)

According to Abramovich, Glastenbury, Vermont was founded in 1761, but it took decades for charcoal and lumber industries to grow large enough to support the community. It was something of a Wild West frontier town on the East Coast, but by the end of the 19th century the settlement had outgrown its industry and become a tourist destination.

Decades of felling trees had taken their toll, through, and the area around Glastenbury became prone to flooding and landslides. The allure of the location dwindled, and by the 1930s few people remained there. Those who did were all were members of the Mattison family, and they occupied every public office in the town.

The woodland location of Glastenbury, Vermont ghost town(Image: Google Earth. The woodland location of Glastenbury, Vermont)

Though the ghost town of Glastenbury, Vermont lies in an area known to some as the “Bennington Triangle”, the term wasn’t actually coined until 1992 (by author Joseph Citro), when a bizarre folklore began to swirl around the area. Supposedly, there’s a stone in the area that will swallow you if you step on it. Other tales tell of disorienting winds that cause people to lose their way in the woods. What’s more, a number of mysterious stone cairns amid the landscape around Glastenbury have only added fuel to the conspiracy fire.

There are older tales, too. In the 1860s, stories began circulating of a wild man who lived in the woods and occasionally tormented the more respectable folk. Several murders have occurred over the years – perhaps not too surprising for a centuries-old settlement with a dubious reputation. More bizarre, however, are reported sightings of an 8-foot-tall Bigfoot-like creature known to locals as the Bennington Monster (an outgrowth of the wild man of Glastenbury folklore, perhaps?).

The Bennington Monster has been blamed for the series of disappearances recorded across the area, leading some to believe that it was once the hunting ground of something far more sinister: a genuine serial killer. Whatever your personal thoughts on the Bennington Triangle may be, the remote landscape around Glastenbury ghost town is an eerie place that will live on in folklore for many years to come.

Related: Ghost Towns: 20 Haunting Abandoned Villages of the World

The post Glastenbury: Vermont Ghost Town in Eerie “Bennington Triangle” appeared first on Urban Ghosts Media.

Hook Lighthouse: The Second Oldest in the World

Hook Lighthouse in County Wexford, Ireland.(Image: Athena Flickr. The Hook Lighthouse)

We live in a throw-away society where it’s easier and oftentimes cheaper to replace something rather than repair it. From furniture to cars, newer is better – which makes places like the 12th century Hook Lighthouse in County Wexford, Ireland, even more incredible.

Standing at the tip of the Hook Peninsula on the southeast coast of Ireland is a limestone tower, painted with distinctive black and white bands, that shines a light 23 nautical miles out to sea. Hook Lighthouse has been operating in this manner not for decades but for centuries. It’s one of the oldest lighthouses in the world and the second oldest operating example after the Tower of Hercules in Galicia.

(Image: Ludvam)

According to the Hook Lighthouse & Heritage Centre, that stretch of Irish headland has been inhabited since the fifth century. It was a missionary named Dubhán who built a monastery on the land the Vikings had called Vadra Fiord, or the “weather estuary”.

The earliest lighthouse at Hook Head, built by Dubhán’s monks, was constructed to warn ships off the potentially deadly rocks. The tower itself – as it stands today – was built some time between 1201 and 1240 by William Marshall, Earl of Pembroke and Lord of Leinster.

(Image: pbmurray654)

The Hook Lighthouse was constructed in conjunction with a port at the nearby New Ross, and records suggest it wasn’t just built with the help of the monks, but that they became the first custodians of the enduring navigational aid also.

It’s impressive to think that the building still stands, let alone that it’s intact and functional. On the inside, 115 steps extend up four storeys high, and each level still has its original fireplaces. The walls are four meters thick – which is a good thing, considering the rough winter weather that lashes the centuries-old lighthouse.

(Image: Jeremy Polanski)

The monks remained keepers of the Hook Lighthouse into the 17th century, and it was updated to a coal lantern in 1671. That became a whale oil lantern in 1791, gas lights in 1871, paraffin in 1911, and electric in 1972. The last of the lighthouse keepers walked down those 115 steps in 1996, and today the Hook Lighthouse is remotely controlled by the Commissioners of Irish Lights.

It’s awe-inspiring to think of those keepers who for centuries ascended those steps, the ships that have been warned away from the deadly rocks, and the lives that have been saved. The Hook Lighthouse is such an important part of Wexford’s history that it’s featured on the county’s coat of arms; a reminder that even though times change and technologies advance, the need for navigational aids remains ever present.

Hook Lighthouse on the County Wexford coat of arms(Image: Johnny97. County Wexford coat of arms)

Related: Navigation Markers: 7 Defunct Daymarks & Beacons

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